Pasien dengan vitiligo umumnya sudah mengetahui penyakitnya saat datang berobat. Bagaimana tidak, warna putih pada bercak vitiligo sangat khas, putih seperti kapur atau susu. Biasanya pasien menyebut penyakitnya "pigmen".. " Dok, saya kena penyakit pigmen nih.." Pasien umumnya takut bercak itu akan menyebar luas..
Yuk kita pelajari benda apa sih vitiligo ini? Belajarnya dalam bahasa Inggris dulu ya.. :)
Vitiligo is a skin condition resulting from loss of pigment which produces white patches. Any part of the body may be affected. Usually both sides of the body are affected. Common areas of involvement are the face, lips, hands, arms, legs, and genital areas.
Who Gets Vitiligo? Vitiligo affects one or two of every 100 people. About half the people who develop it do so before the age of 20; about one–fifth have a family member with this condition. It may be an autoimmune process (the body makes antibodies to its own pigment cells). Most people with vitiligo are in good general health, although vitiligo may occur with other autoimmune diseases such as thyroid disease.
How Does Vitiligo Develop? Typical vitiligo shows areas of milky-white skin. However, the degree of pigment loss can vary within each vitiligo patch. There may be different shades of pigment in a patch, or a border of darker skin may circle an area of light skin.
Vitiligo often begins with a rapid loss of pigment. This may continue until, for unknown reasons, the process stops. Cycles of pigment loss, followed by times where the pigment doesn't change, may continue indefinitely. It is rare for skin pigment in vitiligo patients to return on its own.
The course and severity of pigment loss differ with each person. Vitiligo is more obvious on people with darker skin. Individuals with severe cases can lose pigment all over the body. There is no way to predict how much pigment an individual will lose.
How is Vitiligo Treated? Because the (no pigment) white skin, of vitiligo has no natural protection from sun. These areas are easily sunburned, and people with vitiligo have an increased risk to skin cancer. They should wear a sunscreen with a SPF of at least 30 should be used on all areas of vitiligo not covered by clothing. Avoid the sun when it is most intense to avoid burns. Camouflage makeup will help to cover areas of vitiligo.
Treatment of Vitiligo in Children
Aggressive treatment is not used in children. Sunscreen and cover-up measures are usually the best treatments. Topical corticosteroids and imunomodulator can also be used.
Repigmentation Therapy Options for Adults
Topical Corticosteroids — Creams containing corticosteroid compounds can be effective in returning pigment to small areas of vitiligo. These can be used along with other treatments. These agents can thin the skin or even cause stretch marks in certain areas. They should be used under your dermatologist's care.
PUVA PUVA is a form of repigmentation therapy where a type of medication known as psoralen is used. This chemical makes the skin very sensitive to light. Then the skin is treated with a special type of ultraviolet light call UVA. Sometimes, when vitiligo is limited to a few small areas, psoralens can be applied to the vitiligo areas before UVA treatments. Usually, however, psoralens are given in pill form. Treatment with PUVA has a 50 to 70% chance of returning color on the face, trunk, and upper arms and upper legs. Hands and feet respond very poorly. Usually at least a year of twice weekly treatments are required. PUVA must be given under close supervision by your dermatologist. PUVA is not usually used in children under the age of 12, in pregnant or breast feeding women, or in individuals with certain medical conditions.
Narrow Band UVB (NBUVB) — This is a form of phototherapy that requires the skin to be treated two, sometimes three, times a week for a few months. NBUVB is considered safer than PUVA. It may be especially useful in treating children with vitiligo.
Grafting — Transfer of skin from normal to white areas is a treatment available only in certain areas of the country and is useful for only a small group of vitiligo patients. It does not generally result in total return of pigment in treated areas.
Other Treatment Options Other treatment options include a new topical class of drugs called immunomodulators. Due to their safety profile they may be useful in treating eyelids and children. Excimer lasers may be tried as well.
Is Vitiligo Curable? At this time, the exact cause of vitiligo is not known, however, there may be an inherited component. Although treatment is available, there is no single cure.